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Top Lifestyle. Traffic Alerts. Browse more Cape Town jobs Register your CV The crossing through the boundary between the hardly marked and de- fined spaces in both senses, physical and symbolic is highlighted in many cultural systems as a problematic passage, which always requires specific rit- ual procedures. Iliad There are only fifteen occurrences of the two words in the Iliad. My life is more to me than […] all that the stone threshold of the archer Phoebus Apollo encloseth in rocky Pytho. Ancient thresholds: photo and reconstructions from Ginouves , pll.
So she went her way to her thalamus, that her dear son Hephaestus had fashioned for her, and had fitted strong doors to the doorposts with a secret bolt, that no other god might open. Therein she entered and closed the bright doors. There is another text left out of this list, because it describes a different ty- pology: in book VIII, Zeus summons the other gods to an assembly, and com- mands them not to intervene anymore in the war between the Greeks and Trojans. The exile in the Tartarus is a dreadful threat even for a god; the iron gates and the bronze threshold symbolize the edge, the crossing of which is a strong risk and danger even for a deity.
VIII, The occurrences of the two selected terms are more frequent than in the Iliad although not equally spread in the two halves of the poem and main- ly related to domestic space. There she found the insolent suitors, sitting in front of the doors. I, and See also Od. He stood there pondering, before cross- ing the bronze threshold; the high-vaulted halls of valiant Alcinous were like the radi- ance of the sun or moon.
The walls that ran from the threshold to the innermost room were topped with a frieze of blue enamelling. There were gold doors at the front of the well-built house, with silver doorposts set in the bronze threshold. The lintel above was silver too, and the door-handle gold. They were ageless and immortal. VII, and When he had wondered deeply at it all, he crossed the palace threshold swiftly. The storytelling covers the books from IX to XII and in the whole tale every crossing of the threshold is always emphasized in narratological perspective; in fact, the most relevant focal points of the narratives are based on entrances or exits through a threshold.
All the narrative situation is constructed around the crossing of a threshold, as shown not only in the homeric epic but also in plenty of ex- amples of ancient Greek, Roman and Etruscan iconography.
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After the blinding, the threshold is again the boundary. Upon crossing this, the hero and his men will be safe. Interestingly enough, the entrance is depicted as an actual door and not as a rock.
Twenty-two four-wheeled wagons could not have carried it away from the threshold, yet such was the great rocky mass he used for a door ; Od. Then he sat in the entrance, arms outstretched, to catch anyone stealing past, among his sheep.
Blinding of Polyphemus. X, X, and ; and Modern watercolour of Blinding of Polyphemus. Thus the goddess respects the rules of the welcoming ritual, only to then poi- son them and turn them into pigs. The same treatment awaits the hero, who can fight the poison only thanks to the divine plant called moly. In the related ancient iconography, the attention given to the architectural elements is again emphasized, as shown in Figg.
XII, The cave has two doors, one facing the North Wind by which men enter, while the other facing the South Wind is for immortal gods and men do not use it. Modern drawing of Tabula Odysseaca Rondanini.
The first meaningful datum — surely the most visible and linguistically highlighted — is the constant focus on the physical space occupied by the beg- gar: the threshold, sure enough; a place that again is deeply described also from an architectural point of view. In the first part of the poem, the threshold had a specific function within the narrative context, but now, in the beggar tale, it has a main role in the scenes, that is progressively more determined towards the final outcome.
First scene: Odysseus arrives at the palace, stands on the threshold made of ash wood, within the doors, and leans on the cypress doorpost. He does this 35 Od. By now, the disguise is fully believable, so the hero intentionally starts vi- olating the proxemic code he directly addresses Antinoos, playing the part of the merchant fallen into poverty and asking him to give alms like the oth- er suitors have done.
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When Antinoos refuses, Odysseus replies with bitter words, violating the beggary code again; a quarrel follows: the suitor throws a footstool at him, making those present ashamed and uncomfortable. Then Odysseus reacts submissively, behaving as a begger once more.
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XVII, XVII, ; see also Od. In this situation, Iros plays the opponent of the fictional identity of Odysseus in the same way that the suitors represent the counterpart of his real identity: similarly to them, he breaks the shared rules of hospitality and claims the liminal space of the threshold as his own. At the beginning, Iros avoids hand-to-hand combat and addresses the hero with insulting words. This threshold can hold us both. David Dyke is one of a number of beggars who have found themselves in Coventry Magistrates' Court in the past few months — with many being hit by big fines.
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A beggar has been banned from sitting on the pavement and speaking to people he doesn't know after being hit with a two-year Criminal Behaviour Order. David Dyke has also been banned from entering Coventry city centre unless he has an appointment with a handful of agencies or wants to catch a bus. The year-old, who gave his address in court as Patterdale House hostel in Binley Road, Stoke, was handed the order after he was caught begging in Market Way on December Dyke is one of a number of beggars who have found themselves in Coventry Magistrates' Court in the past few months — with many being hit by big fines.
During one court hearing a defendant accused of begging gave his address as a city centre subway. In the last 18 months city centre police have taken more than 50 people to court for begging — with one receiving a week prison sentence for repeatedly breaching a criminal anti-social behaviour order.
What we have found is that many people do not beg because they are homeless, they beg to feed an addiction. By Sam Dimmer.