Manual Parties and Policies: How the American Government Works

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Young people are much less likely to vote than are older people, and they are less likely to be politicians. The lower voting rates of young people in the U. Generally, racial and ethnic minorities are less likely to vote in elections and are also underrepresented in political positions.

If blacks were represented in proportion to their numbers in the U. In , the number in the House increased slightly to 41 7.

Political power is also stratified through income and education. Wealthier and more educated people are more likely to vote. Additionally, wealthier and more educated people are more likely to hold political positions. Bush, were both Yale University alumni. John Kerry was a lawyer and George W. Bush had an MBA from Harvard. Both were white, worth millions of dollars, and came from families involved in politics. Lobbying describes paid activity in which special interest groups argue for specific legislation in decision-making bodies.

Lobbying in the United States describes paid activity in which special interests hire well-connected professional advocates, often lawyers, to argue for specific legislation in decision-making bodies such as the United States Congress. It is a highly controversial phenomenon, often seen in a negative light by journalists and the American public, and frequently misunderstood.

The current pattern suggests much lobbying is done by corporations although a wide variety of coalitions representing diverse groups are possible. Lobbying happens at every level of government, including federal, state, county, municipal, and even local governments. Lobbyists are intermediaries between client organizations and lawmakers: They explain to legislators what their organizations want, and they explain to their clients what obstacles elected officials face.

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Many lobbyists work in lobbying firms or law firms, some of which retain clients outside of lobbying. Others work for advocacy groups, trade associations, companies, and state and local governments. Lobbyists can also be one type of government official, such as a governor of a state, who presses officials in Washington for specific legislation. While the bulk of lobbying happens by business and professional interests who hire paid professionals, some lobbyists represent non-profits and work pro bono for issues in which they are personally interested.

Pro bono clients offer activities like fundraisers and awards ceremonies on neutral territory to meet and socialize with local legislators. Corporations which lobby actively tend to be large corporations, few in number, and often they sell to the government. Most corporations do not hire lobbyists. One study found that the actual number of firms which do lobbying regularly is fewer than , and that the percent of firms engaged in lobbying was 10 percent from Corporations considering lobbying run into substantial barriers to entry: Corporations have to research the relevant laws about lobbying, hire lobbying firms, and cultivate influential people and make connections.

For example, when an issue regarding a change in immigration policy arose, large corporations that were currently lobbying switched focus somewhat to take account of the new regulatory world, but new corporations—even ones likely to be affected by any possible rulings on immigration—stayed out of the lobbying fray, according to the study.

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The Defense Lobby : Defense contractors such as Boeing and Lockheed Martin sell extensively to the government and must, of necessity, engage in lobbying to win contracts. Collectively, African Americans are more involved in the American political process than other minority groups. Sketch an outline of the general African-American influence on U. Collectively, African Americans are more involved in the American political process than other minority groups, indicated by the highest level of voter registration and participation in elections among these groups in African Americans collectively attain higher levels of education than immigrants to the United States.

African Americans also have the highest level of Congressional representation of any minority group in the U. Voter Turnout by Race, Presidential Election : This is a chart illustrating voter turnout by race for the Presidential Election using data from the U. Census Bureau. Senator Roland Burris : Although African Americans have high political participation rates, they are underrepresented in political office.

The large majority of African Americans support the Democratic Party. Although there is an African American lobby in foreign policy, it has not had the impact that African American organizations have had in domestic policy. Historically, African Americans were supporters of the Republican Party because it was Republican President Abraham Lincoln who granted freedom to American slaves; at the time, the Republicans and Democrats represented the sectional interests of the North and South, respectively, rather than any specific ideology—both right and left were represented equally in both parties.

Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson pushed for civil rights legislation during the s. African Americans tend to hold far more conservative opinions on abortion, extramarital sex, and raising children out of wedlock than Democrats as a whole.

On financial issues, they are in line with Democrats, generally supporting a more progressive tax structure to provide more services and reduce injustice and as well as more government spending on social services. Hispanics have the ability to be an influential force in politics, a fact that is especially true in areas with high Hispanic populations.

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Depending on their location and background, Hispanics differ on their political views. Due to the homogeneity among Hispanic voters, they have the ability to be an influential force in American politics. This is especially true in areas with high Hispanic populations. Statistics indicate that the American Hispanic population is increasing and will continue to do so steadily over the ensuing decades of the 21 st century. A study, conducted by the Center for Immigration Studies, projected that in November , Hispanics would comprise In comparison, the same study showed that in , non-Hispanic whites were expected to constitute Non-Hispanic blacks were only expected to represent Hispanics are often classified as a unitary voting bloc, but there are differences in political preferences within this community.

For example, Cuban Americans and Colombian Americans tend to favor conservative political ideologies and to support the Republican Party.

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Why America’s 2-party system is on a collision course with our constitutional democracy - Vox

Mexican Americans, Puerto Rican Americans, and Dominican Americans, on the other hand, tend to favor liberal views and to support the Democratic party. Media are means of transmitting information, which is important for a democracy in which citizens must make their own informed decisions. In communications, media are the storage and transmission channels or tools used to store and deliver information or data.

Media are often referred to as synonymous with mass media or news media, but may refer to a single medium used to communicate any data for any purpose. Media of the United States consist of several different types of communications media: television, radio, cinema, newspapers, magazines, and Internet-based Web sites. American media conglomerates tend to be leading global players, generating large revenues, as well as large opposition in many parts of the world.

A central method in which the media influences the U.

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Gatekeeping occurs at all levels of the media structure, from a reporter deciding which sources are included in a story to editors deciding which stories are printed or covered, and includes media outlet owners and even advertisers. This, in turn, determines to a great extent which issues will be important to Americans and on the agendas of their elected officials.

How political parties work and why we have them

The Internet has provided a means for newspapers and other media organizations to deliver news and, significantly, the means to look up old news. Some organizations only make limited amounts of their output available for free, and charge for access to the rest. Other organizations allow their archives to be freely browsed.


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It is possible that the latter type obtain more influence, as they are true to the spirit of freedom of information by virtue of making it free. Age is an important factor in U. Young people are much less likely to vote than are older people and are less likely to be politicians. Older people are also more organized, through organizations like the AARP, and they are more likely to vote as a block on issues that affect them directly. As a result, older individuals in the U. Given that there is a correlation between age and the issues relevant to those populations, some organizations have capitalized on these relationships in order to push political agendas.

Its mission is to improve the quality of life for retired people and people over the age of On the one hand, AARP pursues its mission by providing services such as tax preparation help, discounts, and insurance for its members. On the other hand, AARP pursues its mission by mobilizing its immense resource base to lobby for policy change. AARP claims around 38 million members, making it one of the largest membership organizations in the United States.

The AARP lobbies for issues that matter to older adults, such as health care and social security. Although they tend to be less organized and participate in lower numbers, young people also influence U.

The Rise and Fall of Political Parties in America

Barack Obama was particularly noted for his popularity among young people. Politicians such as Obama focus on issues that are relevant to certain age groups in order to mobilize support. Privacy Policy. Skip to main content. Search for:. Political System. Learning Objectives List three defining characteristics of the U.